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Full Text Papers

Complimentary access

Most content on is available to subscribers only. A complimentary sample issue of each journal is available. We recommend registering for a user account, as it will enhance the use of this material.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. will occasionally make additional content available for complimentary access. This content will be marked with a "Free" icon. Use of such content is subject to the Terms and Conditions set forth on, and we reserve the right to terminate complimentary access at any time and without prior notice.


Purchasing a subscription or paper

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. offers print-and-online, print only, and online only journal subscriptions. To subscribe, click "Publications" above and select the appropriate journal.

We also offer the sale of individual papers at a price. To purchase a paper, locate the paper of interest and click "For printing" or "With links" and click "purchase this paper." Follow the on-screen instructions to gain immediate access.

Purchased papers are available for download for a period of 24 hours. If you are having difficulty downloading a purchased paper, please contact us. We recommend immediately saving any purchased papers to your hard drive for later use.


Viewing and printing PDFs

Adobe Acrobat version 5.0 or higher is required to view full text PDFs. Adobe Acrobat is available as a free download for PC and Mac computers, and we encourage you to always download the latest version.

We offer two different versions of most papers. "For printing" PDFs are of higher resolution and are best for making high quality prints of graphics. "With links" PDFs are of lower resolution and contain hyperlinks to references; they can also be printed.

To view a paper, click "For printing" or "With links" on any Table of Contents, abstract, or Search Results page. A PDF of the paper will open. From here you can print or save the paper.

Some web browsers may open Adobe Acrobat within the browser window itself (this is especially common with Internet Explorer). If this happens, be sure to use the Print and Save buttons within the Acrobat application (the lower of the two menu bars).


Activating a personal subscription

If this is your first online subscription to a Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. journal you must first create a free user account. This account will allow you to access and manage your subscription(s).

After you've created a user account (or if you already have one), sign in by clicking "My Liebert Connect" or "Sign In" in the masthead of the site. Once you're signed in, click "My Liebert Connect" again followed by "Access" in the submenu.

Enter your customer number (provided in your activation e-mail) or access token (provided by your society) in the text field provided and click "Activate." Your access will be activated immediately and your subscription will appear in My Liebert Connect.

If you do not receive an activation e-mail from us, check your Spam mailbox, as the e-mail may have been diverted. Otherwise, please contact us and we will assist you in activating your subscription.


Most-read papers provides a list of the most-read papers from each journal. These lists are updated daily based on the volume of full text downloads. To view these lists, select a journal and click "Most-read papers." A subscription may be required to access the full text.


Browsing content

You can browse content by publication title or discipline. To do so, click "Browse" in the main menu. You may also browse past issues of journals by using the buttons in the upper right-hand corner of journal pages.


Related papers uses an advanced algorithm to recommend papers that are related to the one you're viewing. To view related papers, click "Related" next to any entry on a Table of Contents or Search Results page.


Searching for authors

The following search options can be used to find papers by specific authors: "All journals," "All publications," "This journal," and "This book." In addition, advanced search allows you to limit your search to author names only.

When searching for author names, format your query as follows: "Doe," "Doe, J" or "Doe J." The search does not support spelled-out first and middle names or wildcards in author searches.


Saved search alerts

Please note: A free user account is required to utilize this feature.

An added benefit of saved searches is that you may request to be notified when new content that matches your search criteria has been added to

To do so, use Simple or Advanced Search to run a saved search by clicking "Run" next to the saved search name. Then select "Monthly" or "Weekly" from the drop-down menu below the "Save search" heading on the Search Results page.

Saved search alerts will be sent to the e-mail address you provided at the time of registration (or a new one if you've since changed that address). Saved search alerts can be canceled at any time by selecting "Never" from the drop-down menu.


Search characteristics

All site searches, as well as CrossRef Search, are case insensitive. For example, searches for "" and "" will return identical results.

All site searches use stemming to return relevant search results. For example, searches for "figure," "figures," and "figuring" will return identical results.

In addition, site searches support two wildcard characters: the asterisk (*) and question mark (?). An asterisk represents zero or more characters at the end of a word, while a question mark represents any character within a word.

An example of using an asterisk is "adeno*," which returns "adenovirus," "adenocarcinoma," etc. An example of using a question mark is "b?nd," which returns "bond," "bend," etc.

Wildcards may not be used to begin search critera, nor may they be stand-alone critera or appear within quotes-delimited phrases (i.e., "").


Types of searches offers three methods of searching full text content. In addition, we provide CrossRef Search, a collaborative effort that includes relevant results from other scientific, technical, and medical journals.

The most basic form of search is found on publication pages. These text boxes allow you to search the full text of a selected publication (or issue).

Simple search, accessible from the menu bar (click "Search"), allows you to select a specific publication or group of publications to search in. You may also run a previous search.

Advanced search offers the highest level of content filtering. Use this to specify additional search criteria, including author(s), publication year, and more. Advanced boolean operators are supported.

Our content is also indexed in Google, Google Scholar, and Windows Live Academic Beta.


Refining your search

After performing a search you will be taken to the Search Results page where metadata for matching content will be displayed in order of relevancy (default) or publication date. From here there are two ways to refine your search.

You can choose to return to the Advanced Search page to modify your search criteria. To do this, click "Modify Search" at the top of the Search Results page.

Alternatively, you may further narrow your search by searching within the results (this is called an iterative search). To do so, enter additional search criteria below the "Narrow search" heading on the Search Results page and click "Search".


Session search history

A "session" is a single instance of using Every search that you perform during a given session is available to be re-run during that session only (or future sessions if you elect to save it).

To run a previous search from the current session, use Simple or Advanced Search and select the appropriate session search from the drop-down menu. This menu will be reset with each new session.


Saving your search

Please note: A free user account is required to utilize this feature.

This feature allows registered users to save search criteria for later use. To do so, perform any search and enter a search name below the "Save search" heading on the Search Results page and click "Save".

You can re-run saved searches by using Simple or Advanced Search. To do so, open one of these search pages and select the appropriate search from the drop-down list. Your search will be run with the saved criteria.

Saved searches are displayed with the dates originally run and most recently run. You can delete a saved search at any time by clicking "Delete" next to the appropriate search.

Additional Tools

Tracking citations

Please note: A free user account is required to utilize this feature.

Use this feature to receive e-mails when specified journal papers are cited by newly-published papers. These alerts will be sent to the e-mail address you provided when you created your user account.

To track citations for a journal paper, click "Track citations" on a table of contents, abstract, or search results page. Your citation tracking need not be limited to your licensed content.

You can view your citation tracking by clicking "My Liebert Connect" in the main menu, followed by "E-mail Alerts" in the submenu. To remove a paper from your citation tracking, click "remove".


Downloading metadata provides a mechanism for downloading paper metadata to third party citation management software. Metadata can be downloaded for EndNote, BibTex, ProCite, Medlars, and Reference Manager.

To do so, visit any Table of Contents or abstract page and click "Download metadata". Check "Direct import" to save downloaded metadata directly to your citation management software.

Please note that we cannot provide technical support for third party software.


Table of Contents alerts

Please note: A free user account is required to utilize this feature.

Sign up for free Table of Contents alerts to receive an e-mail when new articles and/or issues of your selected journal(s) are published. You can sign up for any number of Table of Contents alerts.

We offer two different formats for e-mail alerts: HTML, for newer e-mail clients and most web-based e-mail (including Gmail, Yahoo!, and Hotmail), and text only, for older clients.

To register for these alerts, click on "My Liebert Connect" in the main menu, followed by "Alerts" in the submenu. Your alerts will be sent to the e-mail address you provided at registration.


Favorite journals and papers

Please note: A free user account is required to utilize this feature.

To add a journal or paper to your list of favorites, click "Add to favorites" on a journal, table of contents, abstract, or search results page. Your favorites need not be limited to your licensed (subscribed) content.

You can view your favorites by clicking "Browse" or "My Liebert Connect" in the main menu, followed by "Favorites" in the submenu (bookmark this page for future visits). To remove a journal or paper from your list of favorites, click "remove".


Emailing to a colleague

To email a colleague with a link to a page on, click "Email to a colleague" on a publication, table of contents, abstract, or search results page. Please note that this will not grant the recipient access to full text content.

Upon clicking "Email to a colleague," enter the recipient's email address, followed by a subject and personal message (this is optional). You may also choose to receive a copy of this email by checking the appropriate box.

We will not use the recipient's email address for purposes other than sending the requested reference. Upon processing this request, our system will remove the recipient's email address from our records.


Liebert For Mobile (L4M)

Complete access to our full catalog of subscription-based journal content is available on any mobile device. Learn more about automatic institution pairing.